Count Galeazzo Ciano was Mussolini s foreign minister and son-in-law. After several Axis defeats in 1942, Ciano became one of many Fascist proponents of a separate peace with the Allies. The suspicious Mussolini dismissed his entire Cabinet (Feb. 5, 1943), and Ciano was appointed ambassador to the Vatican. Nonetheless, Ciano and other leading Fascists retained enough power at the historic meeting of the Grand Council (July 24/25, 1943) to force Mussolini's resignation. When the new government was preparing charges of embezzling against him, the immensely rich Ciano fled Rome. He was captured by pro-Mussolini partisans and Germans in northern Italy. In 1944, on Mussolini's orders, he was brought to trial on a charge of treason, found guilty, and executed by a shot in the back.
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